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Methods for Experiment 120 -

E120 Construction

Photos from the construction of Experiment 120

Goals and Additional Design Details for E120

Goals
To control plant species diversity in a well-replicated, long-term field experiment so as to determine the potential effects of plant species richness and plant functional-group richness on

(1) stability of primary productivity in response to natural and experimentally induced climatic variation and in response to herbivores, pathogens, seed predators, and disease;
(2) the species composition, abundances, stability and diversity of herbivorous insects, seed predators, predaceous insects, and parasitoids;
(3) the densities, dynamics, stability and habitat choice of small mammals;
(4) the dynamics of soil C and N, including rates of accretion, leaching losses, rates of mineralization, rates of fixation, and turnover of pools; and
(5) the dynamics, species composition and biodiversity of soil micro- and macro-organisms, including soil mycorrhizal fungi, nitrifying bacteria, other bacteria, other fungi, soil micro-arthropods, earthworms, and soil arthropods.

Additional Design Details
Biodiversity II is contained within a block of 342 plots laid out in a grid adjacent to Biodiversity I. Each plot was laid out as a 13 m x 13 m square, but only the central 9 m x 9 m is actively maintained to contain the specified species and level of plant diversity. This is the only portion sampled. Plots were planted with grassland perennial herbaceous and savanna woody species. These plant species were in either the C4 grass, C3 grass, legume, other forb, or woody functional groups. The species composition of the plots was chosen by separate random draws of the appropriate number of species (1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 plant species) from a pool of 18 species. For diversity levels 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 species, there are 39, 35, 29, 30, and 35 replicates, respectively.

To initiate the experiment, a field at Cedar Creek Natural History Area, Minnesota, was treated with herbicide and burned in August, 1993, had 6-8 cm of soil removed to reduce the seed bank, was plowed and harrowed, then divided into plots of which 168 form this experiment. Plots for Biodiversity II were manually seeded in May 1994 using seed addition rates and methods like those of Biodiversity I. All plots received, in total, 10g/m2 of pure live seed in May 1994 with seed mass divided equally among species. Due to insufficient water resources, the plots were not irrigated in 1994. Because a dry and windy spring led to some soil and seed erosion and to poor germination, plots were re-seeded in May 1995, at half the 1994 rate, and watered once or twice weekly with an irrigation system. Two species that did not germinate in 1994 were replaced with different species in the same functional groups in the 1995, with their seeding proportionate to 10g/m2 or pure live seed. Three species (Elymus canadensis, Poa pratensis, Panicum virgatum) did not establish in one of their two original monocultures, even after reseeding, and these three plots were abandoned after 1996.

All plots were mown in July 1994 to help control weeds, and manually weeded in August 1994. They were manually weeded twice in 1995, four times in 1996, and three or four times from 1997 onward. Selective herbicides were also used through 1997. Plots that were designated to contain only legumes and/or other forbs were sprayed with Assure (Quizalofop P-ethyl (Ethyl(R)-2-[4-(6-chloroquinoxalin-2-yl oxy)-phenoxy]propionate)), a selective herbicide against grasses, twice each growing season from 1994 through 1997. The plots designated to contain just grasses were sprayed twice a year through 1997 with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, a selective herbicide against forbs. All plots in Biodiversity II were burned each spring in late April or early May before plant growth had begun.

There were two problems in implementing Biodiversity II. The first concerned the legume Petalostemum villosum. It had, as a seed contaminant, a congener P. candidum, causing both species to be planted, but at approximately half the desired density for each species, in plots designated for P. villosum. Moreover, seed of the legume Amorpha canescens was inadvertently substituted the legume P. villosum in 16-species plots. Second, because virtually no Solidago rigida, a non-legume forb, germinated during 1994, we reseeded all plots planted originally to Solidago rigida with the non-legume forb Monarda fistulosa. Some Solidago rigida did germinate in 1995 and occurs in plots where originally planted.

Location
The experiment occupies a 10 hectare block of land in a former "brome field" on the land that formerly was part of the Peterson farm.

Other Plots Within the Experimental Block
Plots within the experimental zone which are not used in E120 are 76 additional plots that had functional group compositions drawn from an augmented species pool, 46 plots planted to 32 species, and 48 plots designated for other uses.

History of Big Biodiversity Field Plots

One hundred seventy plots were planted in the block of 342 big biodiversity plots which were not included in experiment e120. The assignment of species to these plots were randomly allocated in different ways than for the E120 plots. The following includes details about the plots within this group.

Plot Species
001 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
004 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
007 Amoca Elyca Lesca Luppe Petpu Poapr Queel Quema
008 Achmi Amoca Asctu Liaas Luppe Monfi Petpu Solri Vicvi
010 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
013 Achmi Amoca Liaas Petpu
017 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
018 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
019 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
021 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
023 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
036 Panvi Schsc
038 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
039 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
040 Amoca Astca Baple Lesca Luppe Petca Petpu Petvi Vicvi
041 Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Panvi Schsc Sornu Spocr
042 Agrre Agrsm Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Poapr Stisp
043 Andge Koecr Panvi Poapr
047 Achmi Amoca
049 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
051 Achmi Liaas
052 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
054 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
055 Boucu Bougr Bucda Panvi Queel Quema Sornu Spocr
059 Asctu Lesca
060 Agrsm Luppe Poapr Quema
061 Agrre Agrsm Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Poapr Stisp
063 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
064 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
065 Schsc Sornu
066 Elyca Koecr Poapr Stisp
071 Lesca Petpu
072 Achmi Andge Asctu Monfi Panvi Schsc Solri Sornu Spocr
076 Andge Panvi Quema Schsc
077 Achmi Asctu Corpa Liaas Monfi Rudse Solne Zizau
078 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
079 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
080 Andge Luppe Petpu Sornu
084 Agrsm Amoca Lesca Luppe Petpu Queel Schsc Sornu
085 Amoca Lesca Liaas Monfi
086 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
088 Agrsm Andge Elyca Koecr Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu
090 Amoca Astca Baple Lesca Luppe Petca Petpu Petvi Vicvi
091 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
095 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
096 Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Panvi Schsc Sornu Spocr
097 Achmi Amoca Asctu Astca Baple Corpa Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petca Petpu Rudse Solne Vicvi Zizau
099 Monfi Petpu Poapr Solri Sornu
100 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
101 Amoca Elyca Koecr Lesca Panvi Petpu Queel Schsc
102 Andge Schsc
103 Agrsm Andge Koecr Panvi
105 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
112 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
114 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Monfi Solri
116 Achmi Amoca Asctu Astca Baple Corpa Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petca Petpu Rudse Solne Vicvi Zizau
120 Achmi Amoca Asctu Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petpu Solri
121 Andge Sornu
122 Achmi Asctu Corpa Liaas Monfi Rudse Solne Zizau
123 Luppe Panvi Petpu Sornu
124 Elyca
128 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
131 Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Panvi Schsc Sornu Spocr
132 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
134 Achmi Amoca Asctu Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petpu
140 Achmi Andge Asctu Liaas Monfi Panvi Schsc Solri Sornu
141 Achmi Amoca Asctu Astca Baple Corpa Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petca Petpu Rudse Solne Vicvi Zizau
143 Andge Panvi Schsc Sornu
144 Achmi Amoca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petpu Schsc Solri Sornu
145 Achmi Andge Asctu Monfi Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
147 Achmi Elyca Petpu Schsc
148 Agrsm Amoca Andge Elyca Koecr Luppe Poapr Sornu
150 Achmi Amoca Asctu Astca Baple Corpa Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petca Petpu Rudse Solne Vicvi Zizau
152 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
154 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
155 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
158 Achmi Asctu Liaas Monfi Queel Rudse Solne Solri Zizau
159 Agrsm Amoca Elyca Koecr Petpu Poapr Queel Quema
162 Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Panvi Schsc Sornu Spocr
172 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
173 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
179 Luppe Monfi Petpu Quema Solri
180 Lesca Luppe Petpu Vicvi
181 Achmi Asctu Monfi Panvi Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
183 Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Panvi Schsc Sornu Spocr
184 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
187 Amoca Lesca Luppe Panvi Petpu Queel Quema Schsc
188 Agrsm Elyca Koecr Panvi Poapr Queel Quema Schsc
191 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
192 Astca Lesca Luppe Petca Petpu Petvi Queel Quema Vicvi
194 Achmi Andge Asctu Liaas Monfi Panvi Rudse Solri Sornu
195 Andge Panvi Schsc Sornu
196 Agrsm Elyca Koecr Poapr
198 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
200 Andge Panvi Schsc Sornu
203 Achmi Asctu Liaas Solne
204 Agrsm Elyca Koecr Leeor Poapr Queel Quema Stisp
207 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
209 Achmi Amoca Asctu Astca Baple Corpa Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petca Petpu Rudse Solne Vicvi Zizau
212 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
214 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
216 Achmi Amoca Asctu Lesca
217 Agrsm Andge Elyca Koecr Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu
218 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
219 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
222 Koecr Petpu Queel Schsc
226 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
228 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
238 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
240 Achmi Amoca Asctu Astca Baple Corpa Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petca Petpu Rudse Solne Vicvi Zizau
241 Achmi Asctu Corpa Liaas
243 Poapr Queel
245 Bucda Panvi Schsc Sornu
246 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
247 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
249 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
250 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
251 Asctu Monfi Solri
252 Amoca Liaas Monfi Petpu
254 Achmi Amoca Andge Lesca Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Solri
258 Agrre Agrsm Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr
260 Panvi Queel Quema Sornu
261 Achmi Amoca Asctu Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petpu
262 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
263 Liaas Quema
264 Amoca Astca Baple Lesca Luppe Petca Petpu Petvi Vicvi
269 Achmi Asctu Corpa Liaas Monfi Rudse Solne Solri Zizau
270 Agrsm Koecr Schsc Sornu
271 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
274 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
275 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
276 Agrre Agrsm Calca Elyca Koecr Leeor Poapr Stisp
277 Achmi Amoca Asctu Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Petpu
279 Koecr Monfi
281 Andge Boucu Bougr Bucda Panvi Schsc Sornu Spocr
284 Andge Panvi Schsc Sornu
285 Andge Panvi Schsc Sornu
288 Agrsm Andge Elyca Koecr Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu
289 Amoca Lesca Luppe Petpu
294 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
295 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
297 Agrsm Koecr Panvi Schsc
298 Luppe Petpu
305 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
306 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
309 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Astca Baple Boucu Bougr Broin Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
310 Andge Schsc
312 Rudse
314 Agrsm Asctu
315 Achmi Asctu Liaas Queel
316 Achmi Amoca Asctu Monfi
317 Agrsm Andge Elyca Koecr Panvi Poapr Schsc Sornu
320 Amoca Elyca Koecr Liaas Luppe Monfi Petpu Poapr Solri
323 Achmi Asctu Liaas Monfi
326 Poapr Quema
327 Amoca Andge Lesca Luppe Panvi Petpu Schsc Sornu
332 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
337 Agrsm Amoca Andge Elyca Poapr Queel Quema Sornu
340 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
341 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Baple Boucu Bougr Bucda Calca Corpa Elyca Koecr Leeor Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Rudse Schsc Solne Solri Sornu Spocr Stisp Vicvi Zizau
 

Numbering of the plots for E120

Plots are numbered starting from the northeast corner, incrementing left to right in odd rows and right to left in even rows. Walking paths separate every row and driving paths divide the plots into 6x6 groups in the following arrangement. There are 18 Rows with 19plots each.

Seeding rates

To assure adequate establishment, plots were seeded both in 1994 and 1995. Rates for 1995 are related to those of 1994 by an adjustment factor, with one factor for plots that retained their identities and another factor for plots in which species were changed or added. Factors for plots that were changed are marked with asterisks (*) below. Columns labelled B, C, D, etc. contain the grams of seed applied per plot for the corresponding treatment. The table describes the species planted within any of the 342 plots in the block of plots containing the plots for E120.

Code Species Name Year Factor B C D E F H
Achmi Achillea millefolium 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
Agrre Agropyron repens 1994 1 1100 550 275 138 69.0 35.0
1995* .716 706 353 177 88 44.0 22.0
1995 .5 493 247 123 62 31.0 15.4
Agrsm Agropyron smithii 1994 1 1250 626 313 156 78.0 39.0
1995* .716 895 448 224 112 56.0 28.0
1995 .716 895 448 224 112 56.0 28.0
Amoca Amorpha canescens 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .25 85 43 21 10 6 5.3 2.7
Andge Andropogon gerardi 1994 1 1650 825 412 206 103.0 52.0
1995* .716 1181 591 295 148 74.0 37.0
1995 .1 165 83 41 21 10.3 5.2
Asctu Asclepias tuberosa 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
Astca Astragalus canadensis 1994 1 220 110 55 28 14.0 7.0
1995* .716 158 79 39 19 7 9.9 4.9
1995 .5 110 55 28 13 8 6.9 3.4
Baple Baptisia leucantha 1994 1 190 95 48 24 12.0 6.0
1995* .716 136 68 34 17 0 8.5 4.3
1995 .5 95 48 24 11 9 5.9 3.0
Boucu Bouteloua curtipendula 1994 1 1100 550 275 138 69.0 35.0
1995* .716 788 394 197 99 49.0 25.0
1995 .5 550 275 138 69 34.0 17.2
Bougr Bouteloua gracilis 1994 1 1540 770 385 192 96.0 48.0
1995* .716 1654 827 414 207 103.0 52.0
1995 .5 1155 578 289 144 72.0 36.0
Broin Bromus inermis 1994 1 1000 500 250 125 63.0 31.0
1995* .716 695 348 174 87 43.0 21.7
1995 .716 695 348 174 87 43.0 21.7
Bucda Buchloe dactyloides 1994 1 970 485 240 120 60.0 30.0
1995* .716 729 365 182 91 46.0 22.8
1995 .716 729 365 182 91 46.0 22.8
Calca Calamagrostis canadensis 1994 1 1000 500 250 125 63.0 31.0
1995* .716 652 326 163 82 41.0 20.4
1995 .5 456 228 114 57 29.0 14.3
Corpa Coreopsis palmata 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .5 170 85 43 21 10.6 5.3
Elyca Elymus canadensis 1994 1 2000 1000 500 250 125.0 62.0
1995* .716 1432 716 358 179 90.0 45.0
1995 .25 500 250 125 63 31.0 15.6
Koecr Koeleria cristata 1994 1 1100 550 275 138 69.0 35.0
1995* .716 764 382 191 96 48.0 23.9
1995 .716 764 382 191 96 48.0 23.9
Leeor Leersia oryzoides 1994 1 1000 500 250 125 63.0 31.0
1995* .716 695 348 174 87 43.0 21.7
1995 .716 695 348 174 87 43.0 21.7
Lesca Lespedeza capitata 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .25 85 43 21 10 6 5.3 2.7
Liaas Liatris aspera 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
Luppe Lupinus perennis 1994 1 250 125 62 31 15.0 7.0
1995* .716 179 90 45 22 11.2 5.6
1995 .5 125 63 31 15 6 7.8 3.9
Monfi Monarda fistulosa 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 207 104 52 26 13.0 6.5
1995 .716 207 104 52 26 13.0 6.5
Panvi Panicum virgatum 1994 1 1800 900 450 225 112.0 56.0
1995* .716 1933 967 483 242 121.0 60.0
1995 .5 1350 675 338 169 84.0 42.0
Petca Petalostemum candidum 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .5 170 85 43 21 10.6 5.3
Petpu Petalostemum purpureum 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 236 118 59 30 15.0 7.4
1995 .716 236 118 59 30 15.0 7.4
Poapr Poa pratensis 1994 1 1650 825 412 206 103.0 51.0
1995* .716 1375 688 344 172 86.0 43.0
1995 .333 640 320 160 80 40.0 20.0
Rudhi Rudbeckia hirta 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .5 170 85 43 21 10.6 5.3
Schsc Schizachyrium scoparium 1994 1 3000 1500 750 375 187.0 94.0
1995* .716 2148 1074 537 269 134.0 67.0
1995 .1 300 150 75 38 18.8 9.4
Solne Solidago nemoralis 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
Sornu Sorghastrum nutans 1994 1 2200 1100 550 275 138.0 69.0
1995* .716 1575 788 394 197 99.0 49.0
1995 .1 220 110 55 28 13.8 6.9
Spocr Sporobolus cryptandrus 1994 1 420 210 105 53 27.0 14.0
1995* .716 601 301 150 75 38.0 18.8
1995 .5 420 210 105 53 26.0 13.1
Stico Stipa comata 1994 1 1000 500 250 125 63.0 31.0
1995* .716 644 322 161 81 40.0 20.0
1995 .716 644 322 161 81 40.0 20.0
Vicvi Vicia villosa 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .5 170 85 43 21 10.6 5.3
Zizau Zizia aurea 1994 1 340 170 85 43 22.0 11.0
1995* .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
1995 .716 243 122 61 30 15.2 7.6
Queel Quercus ellipsoidalis 1994 1 0 0 0 0 .0 .0
1995* .716 238 119 60 29 15.4 7.0
1995 .716 238 119 60 29 15.4 7.0
Quema Quercus macrocarpa 1994 1 0 0 0 0 0 .0
1995* .716 357 179 90 44 23 10.5
1995 .716 357 179 90 44 23 10.5
 

Species Assigned to Each Plot

PlotSpecies
002Lesca
003Asctu Liaas Monfi Panvi Solri
005Andge
006Panvi Schsc
009Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
011Achmi
012Achmi Koecr Luppe Monfi Petca Petvi Poapr Schsc Solri Sornu
014Asctu Liaas
015Agrsm Elyca Monfi Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Solri
016Asctu
020Amoca
022Agrsm Asctu Elyca Koecr Liaas Monfi Petca Petvi Quema Solri
024Asctu Elyca Panvi Schsc
026Agrsm Elyca Petpu Sornu
027Achmi Agrsm Amoca Asctu Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
028Lesca Petpu Queel Quema
029Lesca
030Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
031Schsc
032Andge Queel
033Agrsm Andge Liaas Petca Petvi
034Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
035Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
044Asctu Panvi Petca Petpu Petvi
045Andge Liaas Petpu Quema
046Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri
048Koecr Lesca
050Achmi Elyca Koecr Lesca Petca Petpu Petvi Poapr Quema
053Lesca Poapr Quema Sornu
056Luppe Schsc
057Achmi Agrsm Koecr Lesca Monfi Petca Petvi Poapr Schsc Solri
058Andge Monfi Poapr Solri Sornu
062Elyca Lesca Petca Petvi Quema
067Agrsm Koecr Luppe Monfi Petca Petvi Queel Quema Solri Sornu
068Achmi Agrsm Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
069Achmi
070Andge Asctu Luppe Schsc
073Monfi Queel Solri
074Achmi Agrsm Asctu Elyca Koecr Petca Petvi Quema Sornu
075Asctu Panvi
081Achmi Agrsm Elyca Lesca Liaas Petpu Poapr Schsc
082Achmi Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
083Luppe
087Sornu
089Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Liaas Luppe Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Sornu
092Sornu
093Agrsm Koecr Luppe Petpu
094Lesca
098Achmi Agrsm Andge Koecr Luppe Panvi Poapr Queel
104Achmi Elyca Koecr Liaas Luppe Petpu Queel Schsc
107Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri
108Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Elyca Koecr Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
109Andge
110Elyca Lesca Luppe Panvi
111Achmi Agrsm Lesca Monfi Petca Petvi Poapr Queel Quema Solri
115Agrsm Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Monfi Poapr Queel Solri
117Asctu Luppe
118Achmi Agrsm Andge Asctu Koecr Monfi Petpu Quema Solri
125Petpu Schsc
126Bargr
127Lesca Quema
129Liaas
130Achmi Asctu Elyca Liaas Panvi Petpu Quema Schsc
133Lesca Monfi Petca Petvi Schsc Solri
135Schsc
136Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
137Amoca
138Achmi Elyca Koecr Liaas
139Agrsm Elyca Koecr Lesca
142Koecr
146Achmi Andge Lesca Monfi Panvi Poapr Queel Quema Solri
149Monfi Petca Petvi Quema Solri Sornu
151Queel
153Agrsm
156Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Monfi Panvi Petpu Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
157Agrsm Koecr
160Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
161Quema
163Sornu
164Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
165Poapr Sornu
166Bargr
167Liaas
168Andge Koecr
169Achmi Agrsm Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Solri Sornu
170Achmi Asctu Elyca Koecr Monfi Petca Petpu Petvi Queel Solri
171Koecr Luppe
174Achmi Agrsm Amoca Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
175Luppe Sornu
176Agrsm Liaas Panvi Poapr
177Andge Asctu Koecr Liaas Petca Petvi Quema Schsc Sornu
178Achmi Agrsm Elyca Koecr Liaas Monfi Panvi Schsc Solri
185Petpu
186Achmi Agrsm Amoca Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
189Queel Schsc
190Lesca Liaas Petpu Quema
193Andge Luppe
197Asctu Panvi
199Luppe Queel Quema Schsc
201Lesca Petpu Queel Sornu
202Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Schsc Solri Sornu
205Petpu
206Agrsm Andge Asctu Lesca Luppe Monfi Poapr Solri Sornu
208Achmi Agrsm Koecr Lesca Luppe Panvi Poapr Schsc
210Achmi Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Poapr Schsc
211Monfi Petca Petvi Solri
213Achmi Andge Koecr Lesca Petca Petvi Poapr Quema Schsc
220Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Koecr Lesca Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
221Queel Quema
223Koecr Liaas Poapr Queel
224Achmi Sornu
225Elyca Petpu Queel Schsc
227Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
229Andge Petpu Poapr Schsc
230Panvi
232Koecr Luppe Monfi Panvi Petca Petvi Queel Schsc Solri Sornu
233Liaas Petpu Poapr Queel
234Elyca Luppe
235Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
236Lesca Panvi
237Poapr
239Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Luppe Monfi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
242Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
244Bargr
248Bargr
253Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
255Queel
256Agrsm
257 Achmi Agrsm Amoca Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
259Lesca Schsc
265Luppe
266Achmi Agrsm Andge Petca Petpu Petvi Quema Schsc Sornu
267Liaas
268Koecr
272Petca Petvi Queel
273Achmi Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
278Elyca Sornu
280Schsc
282Sornu
283Achmi Agrsm Andge Asctu Elyca Panvi Schsc Sornu
286Lesca Poapr Schsc Sornu
287Achmi Elyca Monfi Schsc Solri
290Monfi Solri
291Petpu
292Andge Elyca Koecr Lesca Luppe Petca Petvi Poapr Sornu
293Andge Asctu Lesca Luppe Petpu Queel Quema Schsc
296Quema
299Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
300Luppe Panvi
301Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Poapr Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
302Liaas Luppe Monfi Quema Solri
303Achmi Agrsm Koecr Liaas Luppe Monfi Petca Petvi Poapr Solri
304Agrsm Koecr
307Asctu Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Queel Quema Schsc Solri
308Asctu
311Koecr Panvi
313Achmi Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Petca Petpu Petvi Quema
318Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Luppe Monfi Panvi Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
322Queel Schsc
324Elyca Poapr
325Koecr Monfi Panvi Petpu Solri
328Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Quema Schsc Solri
329Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Elyca Koecr Lesca Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
330Andge Liaas
331Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Queel Quema Schsc Solri
333Elyca
334Elyca Sornu
335Koecr Petca Petvi
336Achmi Agrsm Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Queel Quema Schsc Solri Sornu
338Monfi Solri
339Achmi Amoca Andge Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Luppe Monfi Panvi Petpu Poapr Queel Quema Schsc Solri
342Luppe Monfi Solri
 

Species abbreviations

Species codes of five characters are assigned from the first three characters of the genus name and the first two of the species. These abbreviations are used in other files to shorten documentation of the experiment.

Abbreviation Species Functional Group
Achmi Achillea millefolium Forb
Agrsm Agropyron smithii C-3
Amoca Amorpha canescens Legume
Andge Andropogon gerardi C-4
Asctu Asclepias tuberosa Forb
Bargr Bare ground -
Elyca Elymus canadensis C-3
Koecr Koeleria cristata C-3
Lesca Lespedeza capitata Legume
Liaas Liatris aspera Forb
Luppe Lupinus perennis Legume
Monfi Monarda fistulosa Forb
Panvi Panicum virgatum C-4
Petca Petalostemum candidum Legume
Petpu Petalostemum purpureum Legume
Petvi Petalostemum villosum Legume
Poapr Poa pratensis C-3
Queel Quercus ellipsoidalis Woody
Quema Quercus macrocarpa Woody
Schsc Schizachyrium scoparium C-4
Solri Solidago rigida Forb
Sornu Sorghastrum nutans C-4
 

Treatments applied to plots

A plot's group code shows which functional groups are present in the plot, with the left-most column representing C-3 grasses, the second column representing C-4 grasses, the third representing forbs other than legumes, the fourth representing legunes, and the fifty representing woody plants. Again, if a column is 1, the corresponding group is present in the plot. If 0, it is not. For example, Plot 3 has group code 01100, which means the plot has both C-4 grasses and forbs other than legumes, but nothing else.

Plot Treatment Numberof Groups Group Code(34FLW) Number of species
002 B 1 00010 01
003 D 2 01100 04
005 B 1 01000 01
006 C 1 01000 02
009 F 5 11111 16
011 B 1 00100 01
012 E 4 11110 08
014 C 1 00100 02
015 E 4 10111 08
016 B 1 00100 01
020 B 1 00010 01
022 E 4 10111 08
024 D 3 11100 04
026 D 3 11010 04
027 F 5 11111 16
028 D 2 00011 04
029 B 1 00010 01
030 F 5 11111 16
031 B 1 01000 01
032 C 2 01001 02
033 D 4 11110 04
034 F 5 11111 16
035 F 5 11111 16
044 D 3 01110 04
045 D 4 01111 04
046 F 5 11111 16
048 C 2 10010 02
050 E 4 10111 08
053 D 4 11011 04
056 C 2 01010 02
057 E 4 11110 08
058 D 3 11100 04
062 D 3 10011 04
067 E 5 11111 08
068 F 5 11111 16
069 B 1 00100 01
070 D 3 01110 04
073 C 2 00101 02
074 E 5 11111 08
075 C 2 01100 02
081 E 4 11110 08
082 F 5 11111 16
083 B 1 00010 01
087 B 1 01000 01
089 F 5 11111 16
092 B 1 01000 01
093 D 2 10010 04
094 B 1 00010 01
098 E 5 11111 08
104 E 5 11111 08
107 F 5 11111 16
108 F 5 11111 16
109 B 1 01000 01
110 D 3 11010 04
111 E 4 10111 08
115 E 4 11101 08
117 C 2 00110 02
118 E 5 11111 08
125 C 2 01010 02
126 A 0 00000 00
127 C 2 00011 02
129 B 1 00100 01
130 E 5 11111 08
133 D 3 01110 04
135 B 1 01000 01
136 F 5 11111 16
137 B 1 00010 01
138 D 2 10100 04
139 D 2 10010 04
142 B 1 10000 01
146 E 5 11111 08
149 D 4 01111 04
151 B 1 00001 01
153 B 1 10000 01
156 F 5 11111 16
157 C 1 10000 02
160 F 5 11111 16
161 B 1 00001 01
163 B 1 01000 01
164 F 5 11111 16
165 C 2 11000 02
166 A 0 00000 00
167 B 1 00100 01
168 C 2 11000 02
169 F 5 11111 16
170 E 4 10111 08
171 C 2 10010 02
174 F 5 11111 16
175 C 2 01010 02
176 D 3 11100 04
177 E 5 11111 08
178 E 3 11100 08
185 B 1 00010 01
186 F 5 11111 16
189 C 2 01001 02
190 D 3 00111 04
193 C 2 01010 02
197 C 2 01100 02
199 D 3 01011 04
201 D 3 01011 04
202 F 4 11110 16
205 B 1 00010 01
206 E 4 11110 08
208 E 4 11110 08
210 E 4 11110 08
211 C 2 00110 02
213 E 5 11111 08
220 F 5 11111 16
221 C 1 00001 02
223 D 3 10101 04
224 C 2 01100 02
225 D 4 11011 04
227 F 5 11111 16
229 D 3 11010 04
230 B 1 01000 01
232 E 5 11111 08
233 D 4 10111 04
234 C 2 10010 02
235 F 5 11111 16
236 C 2 01010 02
237 B 1 10000 01
239 F 5 11111 16
242 F 5 11111 16
244 A 0 00000 00
248 A 0 00000 00
253 F 5 11111 16
255 B 1 00001 01
256 B 1 10000 01
257 F 5 11111 16
259 C 2 01010 02
265 B 1 00010 01
266 E 5 11111 08
267 B 1 00100 01
268 B 1 10000 01
272 C 2 00011 02
273 F 5 11111 16
278 C 2 11000 02
280 B 1 01000 01
282 B 1 01000 01
283 E 3 11100 08
286 D 3 11010 04
287 D 3 11100 04
290 B 1 00100 01
291 B 1 00010 01
292 E 3 11010 08
293 E 4 01111 08
296 B 1 00001 01
299 F 5 11111 16
300 C 2 01010 02
301 F 5 11111 16
302 D 3 00111 04
303 E 3 10110 08
304 C 1 10000 02
307 E 4 01111 08
308 B 1 00100 01
311 C 2 11000 02
313 E 4 10111 08
318 F 5 11111 16
322 C 2 01001 02
324 C 1 10000 02
325 D 4 11110 04
328 F 5 11111 16
329 F 5 11111 16
330 C 2 01100 02
331 F 5 11111 16
333 B 1 10000 01
334 C 2 11000 02
335 C 2 10010 02
336 F 5 11111 16
338 B 1 00100 01
339 F 5 11111 16
342 C 2 00110 02
 

aafe120 - Plant traits

Abstract

In the summers of 2007 and 2008, leaf traits were measured in the Cedar Creek biodiversity experiment [E120]. Three fully mature leaves were sampled from ten individuals of each species collected within the maintained experimental plots as well as from the unmaintained experimental plots. Each individual was identified from a randomly chosen plot to cover the range of diversity treatments. Fresh leaves were scanned on a flatbed scanner on the same day as collection with petioles and sheaths removed. Leaf area, perimeter and Feret's diameter were calculated from the scanned leaves using ImageJ software (Rasband 1997-2004). This allowed calculation of perimeter per area (P/A, cm/cm-2), which is empirically correlated with leaf hydraulic conductance across a wide range of taxa (Sack et al. 2003). Perimeter per leaf area x Feret's diameter is a unitless measure of leaf lobedness Cavender-Bares et al 2006 that influences the leaf radiation balance (Givnish 1976). After scanning, leaves were dried at 65oC for three days and weighed to calculate specific leaf area (cm2/g).

Seed mass was determined by collecting seed heads for ten plants per species with fully mature seeds, air drying the seed heads, and then weighing together ten seeds (and dividing by ten) to calculate a mean seed mass per plant. For five species, seed mass was taken from online commercial databases, including the Native Seed Network, Wildflower Farm Inc., and Prairie Moon Nursury. Plant height was measured at maturity from the root collar to the apical meristem or to the top of the vegetative canopy for five to ten individuals per species. Some values were also taken from the USDA Plants Database.

Sampling

Obtain 5 samples from within the biodiversity experiment and 5 samples from the out-group of not maintained plots. Each sample should consist of 3 mature leaves of the plant. Keep these leaves cold and dry until scanning.

Scanning

Scanning of leaf samples should ideally be done on the same day that samples are obtained. If this is not possible, keep samples refrigerated.
To begin scanning, cut petioles from the leaves and measure with a ruler. Number a transparency and put leaves in appropriate area on transparency. Scanning is easiest if transparency remains on the scanner with ruler. Make sure scan contains all leaves and the ruler. Make sure the scan is in true color. Save the image as:
Plant AbbreviationNumber_mm_dd_yy
Use a sharpie to number the leaves. After the scan, the leaves should be returned to an envelope and placed in a drier at 65??C then weighed when dried

Using ImageJ:
Open the image from File / Open. This should bring up the image in true color in another window.
Setting scale: Click analyze / set scale. Run a line across the ruler for 8 centimeters. Enter known distance as =8.0 and Unit of Length as =cm. Click global in order to make this the default for all following images.
Measuring Parameters: Click Process / Binary / Threshold (or Make Binary depending on version. Click Analyze / Set Measurements. This will bring up a window and make sure that Area Perimeter and Feret???s Diameter are the only boxes checked. Select the wand from the toolbar and select one of the leaves. A yellow outline should appear on the black object. Click analyze / measure. This will bring up a third window with the data. Save this into an excel or spss spreadsheet.

aage120 - Main Plots All Arthropod Insect Sweepnet Sampling 1996-2006

Main Plots All Arthropod Insect Sweepnet Sampling 1996-2006

This dataset contains arthropods samples from the main group of 172 plots in E120. Please see main E120 web page for details on plot treatments and other information. These main plots were sampled by sweepnet one to three times per summer from 1996-2006. Sampling dates were: 16/Aug/1996, 20/Jun/1997, 28/Jul/1997, 22/Aug/1997, 22/Jun/1998, 20/Aug/1998, 22/Jun/1999, 20/Aug/1999, 26/Jun/2000, 22/Aug/2000, 23/Jun/2001, 19/Aug/2001, 22/Jun/2002, 20/Aug/2002, 18/Aug/2003, 17/Aug/2004, 17/Aug/2005, 16/Aug/2006. August samples corresponded to approximate peak plant biomass. Problems with spoilage in June samples containing lupine (samples were difficult to dry before mold became a problem) prompted the termination of June sampling after 2002. Samples are not available from all plots on all dates, either due to spoilage or because they were not sampled. Plots were sampled regardless of any changes in plot treatment.

In each month, all plots were swept in one day. A 38cm diameter muslin sweep net was used to make 25 sweeps while walking a line about 10m long through the interior of each plot about 2-3m from the plot edge. A ?sweep? consisted of a quick, approximately 2-meter-long horizontal swing of the net. Each sweep sample was transferred to a 1-gallon plastic bag with label identifying plot number. Bags were placed in a chest freezer, and later opened, thawed, and sorted. Extraneous plant material was shaken and discarded. The remaining sample was viewed under a dissecting scope, and species and the number of each encountered was tabulated. Identification was generally to species or genus, but occasionally a morphological descriptive is used when identification was uncertain. Many specimens were mounted and labeled, to serve as reference material and to more closely examine and determine problematic species. As of 2012, reference specimens have primarily been transferred to the University of Minnesota Insect collection on the Saint Paul Campus. Photos of some morphospecies are posted on the Insects of Cedar Creek website. *Be Cautious comparing across studies, there is no guarantee that morphospecies descriptions within this study and others match up.

Plots which were designated part of the main e120 experiment and which are included in this data set are as follows:
2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 44, 45,46, 48, 50, 53, 56, 57, 58, 62, 67, 68, 69, 70,73, 74,75, 81, 82, 83, 87, 89, 92, 93, 94, 98, 104, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 115, 117, 118, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 133, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 142, 146, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 160, 161, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171,174,175, 176, 177, 178, 185, 186, 189, 190, 193, 197, 199, 201, 202, 205, 206, 208, 210, 211, 213, 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 227, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 242, 244, 248, 253, 255, 256, 257, 259, 265, 266, 267, 268, 272, 273, 278, 280, 282, 283, 286, 287, 290, 291, 292, 293, 296, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 307, 308, 311, 313, 318, 322, 324, 325, 328, 329, 330, 331, 333, 334, 335, 336, 338, 339, 342.

Main Plots All Arthropod Insect Sweepnet Sampling 1996-2006: Data Preparation

Data was prepared primarily by Nick Haddad, John Haarstad and Stephanie Pimm Lyon. Colleen Satyshur corrected a sampling date discrepancy and re-formatted columns to match 2013 standard arthropod attributes.

acqe120 - Developing seedheads treated with fungicide and insecticide

Developing seedheads treated with fungicide and insecticide

In 2005, we selected six species based on the availability of sufficient monoculture replication. For most species in the biodiversity experiment there were only one or two monoculture plots; we used all species for which there were three monoculture plots except for one, Andropogon gerardii, which had two monoculture and a two-species plot in which its woody species competitor was almost entirely absent (which made it a de facto monoculture). For each of the six species we randomly selected three 16-species plots (hereafter polycultures) from the 35 polycultures in the larger biodiversity experiment, with the stipulation that they contained the focal species and were not already assigned to some other focal species. In total, 36 plots (18 monocultures and 18 polycultures) were used for our natural enemy removal experiment.

Eight seedheads of six species were selected and randomly assigned to one of four treatments, namely, insecticide, fungicide, insecticide and fungicide, or water (controls). Plots contained two replicate seedheads per treatment. After flowering, between mid-July and mid-August,
seedheads were saturated weekly with the respective treatment using spray bottles. We used a 3 % concentration of Mavrik Aquaflow (Wellmark International, Schaumburg, IL), a pyrethroid insecticide with the active ingredient taufluvalinate (22.3 % by volume) and a 1 % concentration of Captan (Bonide Products, Inc., Oriskany, NY), a phthalimide fungicide (50 % by volume).

As seeds ripened from August to September, we visited plots three times a week and harvested seedheads, along with >10 cm of stem, once they were fully mature but before seeds dispersed. Collected seedheads were stored dry at room temperature and ambient humidity for several weeks to after-ripen. We separated seeds from stems and vegetative materials and hand-counted the apparent number of seeds per seedhead.

Next, to assess differences in seed viability due to natural enemy treatments, we tested germination on 30 apparent seeds per seedhead wherever possible. Apparent seeds that contained insects or seeds consumed by fungi would not germinate, providing a means to indirectly measure seeds consumed
by predators.

Further details on this dataset can be found in the publication: Beckman, Noelle G.; Dybzinski, Ray; Tilman, G. David; Neighborhoods have little effect on fungal attack or insect predation of developing seeds in a grassland biodiversity experiment; Oecologia, 2014; 174(2): 521 - 532. 2014

acve120 - Local plant diversity and soybean biological control 2011 Aphid and Enemy Surveys

Local plant diversity and soybean biological control Methods

Establishment
In May 2011, we dug six 76.2 cm holes using a 20.3 cm auger, immediately adjacent to each of these 33 plots;eleven 1-species plots, eleven 4-species plots, and eleven 16-species plots, chosen randomly from the pool of maintained plots that were not heavily used for other experiments. To limit root competition of soybean plants with prairie vegetation, we sunk 20.3 cm diameter HVAC ducting into each hole so that it protruded approximately 5 cm above ground level. We mixed soil removed from the holes with purchased garden soil at a 1:1 ratio and filled the holes with the mixture.

Soybeans and Soybean Aphids
We conducted similar experiments in 2011 and 2012. On May 20, 2011 and May 8, 2012, soybeans (Syngenta NK S19-R5) were dipped in soybean inoculant slurry and planted, three beans within each HVAC `pot`. When the plants germinated, 91.4 cm tall cylindrical cages of hardware cloth were positioned around the plants to prevent small-mammal herbivory; the Biodiversity II field is surrounded by a deer fence, and we observed no mammal herbivory in either year.

Three weeks after planting, pots without germination received a transplant from pots with multiple plants germinating; a week later, all pots were thinned to one plant. Soybean plants were watered, as needed, throughout each summer to prevent severe drought stress. Each plant received 0.95 liters of water on watering occasions.

On June 24, 2011, approximately 40 lab-cultured soybean aphids were added to each soybean plant. The plants had an average of 2.5 trifoliates. On June 12, 2012, approximately 50 aphids were added to five of the six plants at each plot; one plant at each plot was left as an aphid-free control. The plants had an average of 2 trifoliates.

For ten weeks each summer, we surveyed each plant once per week, recording the plant size (in trifoliates) and the number of aphids. In 2012, we removed immigrant (winged) aphids from the aphid-free control plants during these surveys. We also surveyed each plant once (2011) per week, recording the number and identity of all insects found on the plants that were not soybean aphids. In 2011, these insect surveys were done in conjunction with the aphid surveys; the plant was first assessed for mobile insects, and then other insects were noted as aphids were counted.
We stopped surveys when plants began to senescence.

Natural Enemy Exclusion
On June 24 2011, we conducted a natural enemy exclusion experiment. We covered three (2011) plants at each plot with no-see-um mesh by wrapping the mesh around the hardware cloth cage, twisting and clipping mesh edges together, and burying the bottom edges of the mesh. Unclipping mesh edges allowed for access to the plants to conduct surveys during the natural enemy exclusion. Natural enemies were manually removed from the plants immediately prior to mesh application and during surveys. Mesh was left on for two weeks and was removed on July 6, 2011. To test for microclimate effects of the mesh, we took temperature and humidity readings from two adjacent plants,one with mesh and one without, at each plot twice: once in the morning when the temperature was relatively low and once mid-afternoon when the temperature was approximately at its peak. We also counted winged aphids (alates) on all plants during the aphid surveys while mesh was on and immediately following mesh removal.

acwe120 - Local plant diversity and soybean biological control 2012 Aphid Surveys

Local plant diversity and soybean biological control

Establishment
In May 2011, we dug six 76.2 cm holes using a 20.3 cm auger, immediately adjacent to each of these 33 plots;eleven 1-species plots, eleven 4-species plots, and eleven 16-species plots, chosen randomly from the pool of maintained plots that were not heavily used for other experiments. To limit root competition of soybean plants with prairie vegetation, we sunk 20.3 cm diameter HVAC ducting into each hole so that it protruded approximately 5 cm above ground level. We mixed soil removed from the holes with purchased garden soil at a 1:1 ratio and filled the holes with the mixture.

Soybeans and Soybean Aphids
We conducted similar experiments in 2011 and 2012. On May 20, 2011 and May 8, 2012, soybeans (Syngenta NK S19-R5) were dipped in soybean inoculant slurry and planted, three beans within each HVAC `pot`. When the plants germinated, 91.4 cm tall cylindrical cages of hardware cloth were positioned around the plants to prevent small-mammal herbivory; the Biodiversity II field is surrounded by a deer fence, and we observed no mammal herbivory in either year.

Three weeks after planting, pots without germination received a transplant from pots with multiple plants germinating; a week later, all pots were thinned to one plant. Soybean plants were watered, as needed, throughout each summer to prevent severe drought stress. Each plant received 0.95 liters of water on watering occasions.

On June 24, 2011, approximately 40 lab-cultured soybean aphids were added to each soybean plant. The plants had an average of 2.5 trifoliates. On June 12, 2012, approximately 50 aphids were added to five of the six plants at each plot; one plant at each plot was left as an aphid-free control. The plants had an average of 2 trifoliates.

For ten weeks each summer, we surveyed each plant once per week, recording the plant size (in trifoliates) and the number of aphids. In 2012, we removed immigrant (winged) aphids from the aphid-free control plants during these surveys. We also surveyed each plant twice per week, recording the number and identity of all insects found on the plants that were not soybean aphids. In 2011, these insect surveys were done in conjunction with the aphid surveys; the plant was first assessed for mobile insects, and then other insects were noted as aphids were counted. In 2012, insect surveys were done separately from aphid surveys; every plant was searched for the same length of time each survey, from 30 seconds each when the plants were small to 120 seconds each when the plants were large.
We stopped surveys when plants began to senescence.

Natural Enemy Exclusion
On June 22, 2012, we conducted a natural enemy exclusion experiment. We covered three (2011) or two (2012) plants at each plot with no-see-um mesh by wrapping the mesh around the hardware cloth cage, twisting and clipping mesh edges together, and burying the bottom edges of the mesh. Unclipping mesh edges allowed for access to the plants to conduct surveys during the natural enemy exclusion. Natural enemies were manually removed from the plants immediately prior to mesh application and during surveys. Mesh was left on for two weeks and was removed on July 6, 2011, and July 6, 2012. To test for microclimate effects of the mesh, we took temperature and humidity readings from two adjacent plants, one with mesh and one without , at each plot twice: once in the morning when the temperature was relatively low and once mid-afternoon when the temperature was approximately at its peak. We also counted winged aphids (alates) on all plants during the aphid surveys while mesh was on and immediately following mesh removal.

Ant Exclusion
In 2012, we attempted to reduce the presence of aphid-tending ants on the soybean plants. We painted Tangle-Trap coating (Contech Inc.) around the lip of all HVAC pots on June 8, but stickiness was quickly lost after soil splattered on the coating during rain showers. We also used ant-bait traps (Terro Liquid Ant Baits T300) within each HVAC pot, which were placed on June 15 and July 20. During surveys, ants found on the plants were manually removed.

acxe120 - Local plant diversity and soybean biological control 2011 Harvest Measures

Local plant diversity and soybean biological control methods

Establishment
In May 2011, we dug six 76.2 cm holes using a 20.3 cm auger, immediately adjacent to each of these 33 plots;eleven 1-species plots, eleven 4-species plots, and eleven 16-species plots, chosen randomly from the pool of maintained plots that were not heavily used for other experiments. To limit root competition of soybean plants with prairie vegetation, we sunk 20.3 cm diameter HVAC ducting into each hole so that it protruded approximately 5 cm above ground level. We mixed soil removed from the holes with purchased garden soil at a 1:1 ratio and filled the holes with the mixture.

Soybeans and Soybean Aphids
We conducted similar experiments in 2011 and 2012. On May 20, 2011 and May 8, 2012, soybeans (Syngenta NK S19-R5) were dipped in soybean inoculant slurry and planted, three beans within each HVAC `pot`. When the plants germinated, 91.4 cm tall cylindrical cages of hardware cloth were positioned around the plants to prevent small-mammal herbivory; the Biodiversity II field is surrounded by a deer fence, and we observed no mammal herbivory in either year.

Three weeks after planting, pots without germination received a transplant from pots with multiple plants germinating; a week later, all pots were thinned to one plant. Soybean plants were watered, as needed, throughout each summer to prevent severe drought stress. Each plant received 0.95 liters of water on watering occasions.

On June 24, 2011, approximately 40 lab-cultured soybean aphids were added to each soybean plant. The plants had an average of 2.5 trifoliates. On June 12, 2012, approximately 50 aphids were added to five of the six plants at each plot; one plant at each plot was left as an aphid-free control. The plants had an average of 2 trifoliates.

In 2011, we harvested two plants from each plot as soon as the start of senescence was detected to determine aboveground biomass. The plants were dried and weighed. After remaining plants had fully senesced, but before dropping bean pods, we harvested bean pods from remaining plants (4 in 2011). Beans were removed from pods and were counted and weighed. Beans were then dried and reweighted.

Natural Enemy Exclusion
On June 24 2011, we conducted a natural enemy exclusion experiment. We covered three (2011) plants at each plot with no-see-um mesh by wrapping the mesh around the hardware cloth cage, twisting and clipping mesh edges together, and burying the bottom edges of the mesh. Unclipping mesh edges allowed for access to the plants to conduct surveys during the natural enemy exclusion. Natural enemies were manually removed from the plants immediately prior to mesh application and during surveys. Mesh was left on for two weeks and was removed on July 6, 2011. To test for microclimate effects of the mesh, we took temperature and humidity readings from two adjacent plants,one with mesh and one without, at each plot twice: once in the morning when the temperature was relatively low and once mid-afternoon when the temperature was approximately at its peak.

adce120 - Local plant diversity and soybean biological control 2012 Enemy Surveys

Local plant diversity and soybean biological control methods

Establishment
In May 2011, we dug six 76.2 cm holes using a 20.3 cm auger, immediately adjacent to each of these 33 plots;eleven 1-species plots, eleven 4-species plots, and eleven 16-species plots, chosen randomly from the pool of maintained plots that were not heavily used for other experiments. To limit root competition of soybean plants with prairie vegetation, we sunk 20.3 cm diameter HVAC ducting into each hole so that it protruded approximately 5 cm above ground level. We mixed soil removed from the holes with purchased garden soil at a 1:1 ratio and filled the holes with the mixture.

Soybeans and Soybean Aphids
We conducted similar experiments in 2011 and 2012. On May 20, 2011 and May 8, 2012, soybeans (Syngenta NK S19-R5) were dipped in soybean inoculant slurry and planted, three beans within each HVAC `pot`. When the plants germinated, 91.4 cm tall cylindrical cages of hardware cloth were positioned around the plants to prevent small-mammal herbivory; the Biodiversity II field is surrounded by a deer fence, and we observed no mammal herbivory in either year.

Three weeks after planting, pots without germination received a transplant from pots with multiple plants germinating; a week later, all pots were thinned to one plant. Soybean plants were watered, as needed, throughout each summer to prevent severe drought stress. Each plant received 0.95 liters of water on watering occasions.

On June 24, 2011, approximately 40 lab-cultured soybean aphids were added to each soybean plant. The plants had an average of 2.5 trifoliates. On June 12, 2012, approximately 50 aphids were added to five of the six plants at each plot; one plant at each plot was left as an aphid-free control. The plants had an average of 2 trifoliates.

For ten weeks each summer, we surveyed each plant once per week, recording the plant size (in trifoliates) and the number of aphids. In 2012, we removed immigrant (winged) aphids from the aphid-free control plants during these surveys. We also surveyed each plant twice per week, recording the number and identity of all insects found on the plants that were not soybean aphids. In 2011, these insect surveys were done in conjunction with the aphid surveys; the plant was first assessed for mobile insects, and then other insects were noted as aphids were counted. In 2012, insect surveys were done separately from aphid surveys; every plant was searched for the same length of time each survey, from 30 seconds each when the plants were small to 120 seconds each when the plants were large.
We stopped surveys when plants began to senescence.

Natural Enemy Exclusion
On June 22, 2012, we conducted a natural enemy exclusion experiment. We covered three (2011) or two (2012) plants at each plot with no-see-um mesh by wrapping the mesh around the hardware cloth cage, twisting and clipping mesh edges together, and burying the bottom edges of the mesh. Unclipping mesh edges allowed for access to the plants to conduct surveys during the natural enemy exclusion. Natural enemies were manually removed from the plants immediately prior to mesh application and during surveys. Mesh was left on for two weeks and was removed on July 6, 2011, and July 6, 2012. To test for microclimate effects of the mesh, we took temperature and humidity readings from two adjacent plants, one with mesh and one without , at each plot twice: once in the morning when the temperature was relatively low and once mid-afternoon when the temperature was approximately at its peak. We also counted winged aphids (alates) on all plants during the aphid surveys while mesh was on and immediately following mesh removal.

Ant Exclusion
In 2012, we attempted to reduce the presence of aphid-tending ants on the soybean plants. We painted Tangle-Trap coating (Contech Inc.) around the lip of all HVAC pots on June 8, but stickiness was quickly lost after soil splattered on the coating during rain showers. We also used ant-bait traps (Terro Liquid Ant Baits T300) within each HVAC pot, which were placed on June 15 and July 20. During surveys, ants found on the plants were manually removed.

invne120 - Invasion strip soil nitrogen

Soil nitrogen sampling and analysis

The 13 x 13 m plots planted in 1994 with 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 randomly selected prairie-savannah species from a pool of 18 possible species were weeded to maintain the planted species composition. In 2000, weeded plots areas were shrunk to 9 x 9 m plus an unweeded 1 x 9 m strip along one edge of the plots where invaders were allowed to colonize.

The invasion strip subplots were sampled for soil nitrogen, on 7 August 2002. 10-g subsamples from four pooled 2-cm diameter cores were extracted for nitrate using 0.01 M KCl, shaken for 30 min, and allowed to settle overnight at 4 C. The supernatant was removed the following day, and was frozen until analysed for nitrate on an Alpkem analyzer (Pulse Instruments Ltd, Saskatoon, Canada).

invre120 - Invasion strip root biomass

Root biomass sampling

The 13 x 13 m plots planted in 1994 with 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 randomly selected prairie-savannah species from a pool of 18 possible species were weeded to maintain the planted species composition. In 2000, weeded plots areas were shrunk to 9 x 9 m plus an unweeded 1 x 9 m strip along one edge of the plots where invaders were allowed to colonize.

In 2002 six soil cores, 5.08 cm diameter, 0-30cm depth were taken from below the clipped aboveground biomass and aggregated. Roots were washed free of soil, sorted from other organic material, dried and weighed.

nbe120 - Plant aboveground biomass carbon and nitrogen

Instrumentation-Plant aboveground biomass carbon and nitrogen

Samples were analyzed using C-N Analyzers, NA1500, Carlo-Erba Instruments or ECS 4010, COSTECH Analytical Technologies Inc., Valencia, CA, USA
Lab analysis were done at University of MN or at the Ecosystems Analysis Lab, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Plant aboveground biomass carbon and nitrogen

Clip strip harvests were 10cm wide by 6 meters in length. Four strips per plot were harvested, typically in late July-early August. Clip strip locations in the plots were rotated each year to minimize sampling effect. For this dataset, unsorted biomass from two clip-strips was air dried at 40 degrees C. After drying, biomass samples were ground with a standard Thomas Wiley? Mill. The resulting ground sample was stirred to homogenize, then a sub-sample was re-ground in a Wiley? Mini-Milll using a 20 mesh screen. Final ground samples were placed in labelled glass scintillation vials and re-dried prior to lab analysis for percent carbon and nitrogen.

pce120 - Plant species percent cover data

Vegetation Sampling

Percent cover of species within 4 permanently marked quadrats within each plot has been recorded annually in July from 1996 to 2000.

ple120 - Plant aboveground biomass data

Vegetation Sampling

Aboveground biomass from each plot has been sampled by clipping narrow strips. The biomass has been sorted, dried, and weighed separately for each strip. Different areas of the plot have been sampled each year and the size of the clipped strips have periodically changed. See aboveground vegetation sampling for details on equipment and other field methods.

rbe120 - Root biomass data

Sampling

Beginning in 1997, root biomass is sampled after clipping by collecting three 5 cm diameter x 30 cm deep cores per clipped strip. Roots are washed free of soil, sorted from other organic material, dried and weighed.