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Citation. McKinney, F.; Stolen, P. 1982. Extra-pair-bond courtship and forced copulation among captive green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis). Animal Behaviour 30:461-474. [1418 CC]
Abstract. A nine and a half week study of eight pairs of wild-caught, full-winged green-winged teal in flight pens showed that paired males both directed courtship toward, and attempted forced copulation on, females paired to other males. Chronology of activities in individuals indicated that: (a) this courtship was probably related to building of liaisons and subsequent mate-changes; (b) males were assessing female reproductive condition and selectively attempting to force copulation on females in laying or pre-laying condition; (c) attempts by males to force copulation on their own mates were associated with forced copulation attempts on the latter. Females tried to avoid forced copulations by fleeing and hiding from pursuing males; their mates attacked assaulting males and tried to dislodge them. A mixed male reproductive strategy involving sperm competition is indicated.